Ces entreprises fabriquent leurs vaccins avec des embryons tirés d'avortements ou des cellules souches humaines, donc des personnes.

Par Philippe Edmond, vendredi 23 mai 2008 à 17:13 :: Eugénisme, laïcité, lumières et individualisme :: permalien #235

Merck, GSK Merck, GSK Sanofi, Berna GSK Sanofi Merck, GSK Merck GSK. Merck Merck. Merck. Sanofi Pasteur Sanofi Pasteur, GSK Sanofi Pasteur Amgen Eli Lilly Merck. Acambis Crucell/NIH MedImmune Vaxin, Sanofi Merck, Novartis

Dites le à votre pharmacien et à vos amis.

Source,  via http://e-deo.typepad.fr/mon_weblog/culture-de-vie/  et  avis nuancé mais ferme du Vatican. ( Traduction de l'avis et sauvegarde du dossier ici )

Alors que l'on parle de vaccins pour la pandémie de la grippe H1N1, il est intéressant de rappeler que de nombreux vaccins sont élaborés à partir de foetus avortés. En 2005, l'académie pontificale avait déjà dénoncé cette pratique et réalisé une liste de vaccins utilisant des cellules de foetus avortés. Le 9 mai 2005, aux Etats-Unis, un officier de la garde côtière américaine s'était vu reconnaître le droit par sa hiérarchie de ne pas être vacciné contre l'hépatite A, vaccin réalisé à partir de foetus avortés. Enfin, juillet 2008 avait vu une levée de boucliés contre le Pencatel de Sanofi Pasteur, un vaccin vaccinant pour de nombreuses maladies, lui aussi réalisé notamment à base de foetus avortés, et qui avait été recommandé pour l'utilisation comme immunisation pour les enfants. La liste ci-dessous est loin d'être exhaustive. Elle donne seulement un petit aperçu du type de vaccin et de quelques société concernées. En pièce téléchargeable un document pdf qui liste en anglais d'autres vaccins concernés.

NOM DESCRIPTION FABRICANT ELABORATION
Biavax Vaccin de la rubéole Merck & Co.,Inc.1_800_672_6372 produit en utilisant la néomycine, sorbitol, support hydrolysé de gélatine : cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu foetal humain d’avortements)
Havrix Hépatite A SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals 1_800_633_8900 produit en utilisant la formaline, hydroxyde d’aluminium, phenoxyethanol, polysorbate 20, support résiduel des protéines MRC5 : cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu foetal humain d’avortements)
Imovax Vaccin de la rage Laboratoires Connaught 1_800_822_2463 produit en utilisant de l’albumine humaine, sulfate de néomycine, phénol : cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu foetal humain d’avortements)
Meruvax I Mumpsvax Vaccin des oreillons Merck & Co., Inc. 1_800_672_6372 produit en utilisant la néomycine, sorbitol, support hydrolysé de gélatine : cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu foetal humain d’avortements)
MMR (ROR) Vaccin du virus de la rubéole, des oreillons et de la rougeole Merck & Co., Inc. 1_800_672_6372 produit en utilisant le sorbitol, néomycine, supports hydrolysés de gélatine : M & M (rubéole d’embryon de poussin), cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu foetal humain d’avortements)
M_R_Vax Rougeole et rubéole Merck & Co., Inc. 1_800_672_6372 produit en utilisant la néomycine, sorbitol, supports hydrolysés de gélatine : M _ embryon de poussin R _ cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu fœtal humain d’avortements)
Pentacel Vaccin combinant les vaccins contre la diphtérie, la coqueluche, le tétanos, majoré de la polio et le Hib. Utilisé aux Etats-Unis pour vacciner les enfants. Sanofi Pasteur Utilise notamment de cellules de foetus avortés.
Varivax Vaccin de la varicelle Merck & Co., Inc. 1_800_672_6372 produit en utilisant le saccharose, phosphate, glutamate monosodique, gélatine : cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu foetal humain d’avortements)

Source :  AltermondeSansFrontiere source citée : FED (Environmental Defense Fund) & MME (Mosby’s Medical Encyclopedia), LifeSiteNews, LifeSiteNews(2), Académie Pontificale

application/pdf icon

fetalvaccines2.pdf

Composition des vaccins
Profils et dénitions chimiques
Toutes les pages

Liste des vaccins

Cette liste se veut représentative, mais non exhaustive, des divers types de vaccins (les noms des vaccins sont, pour la plupart, ceux utilisés aux Etats-Unis)  

Acte Hib

  1. Combinaison de Haemophilus influenzae du Type B (Hib) et de tétanos
  2. Laboratoires Connaught 1-800-822-2463
  3. Produit en utilisant le sulfate d'ammonium, formaline, saccharose, thiomersal (dérivé mercuriel): semi-synthétique
  • Attenuvax
    1. Vaccin de la rougeole
    2. Merck & Co, Inc.1-800-672-6372
    3. Produit en utilisant de la néomycine, sorbitol, gélatine hydrolysée: embryon de poussin
  • Biavax
    1. Vaccin de la rubéole Merck & Co., Inc. 1-800-672-6372
    2. Produit en utilisant la néomycine, sorbitol, support hydrolysé de gélatine: cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu foetal humain d'avortements)
  • DTP
    1. Diphtérie, tétanos et vaccin Pertussis (coqueluche)
    2. SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals 1-800-366-8900
    3. Produit en utilisant du phosphate d'aluminium, formaldéhyde, sulfate d'ammonium, globules rouges purifiés de mouton, glycérol, chlorure de sodium, support thiomersal: hydrolysat pancréatique porcin (porc) de caséine
  • DTP Acel-Immunisé
    1. Combinaison de diphtérie, tétanos et du vaccin acellulaire Pertussis (coqueluche)
    2. Laboratoires Lederle 1-800-934-5556
    3. Produit en utilisant le formaldéhyde, thiomersal, hydroxyde d'aluminium, phosphate d'aluminium, polysorbate 80, gélatine
  • Energix-B
    1. Hépatite B
    2. SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals 1-800-633-8900
    3. Produit en utilisant l'hydroxyde d'aluminium, support thiomersal: levure (probablement un résidu de 5%)
  • Fluvirin
    1. Vaccin du virus de la grippe
    2. Medeva Pharmaceuticals 1-888-medeva, (716)274-5300
    3. Produit en utilisant du fluide embryonnaire (oeuf de poulet), néomycine, polymyxin, thiomersal, betapropiolactone:fluide embryonnaire (oeuf de poulet)
  • FluShield
    1. Vaccin du virus de la grippe, Trivalent, Types A & B
    2. Wyeth-Ayerst 1-800-934-5556
    3. Produit en utilisant le sulfate de gentamicine, formaldéhyde, polysorbate 80, tri(n)butylphosphate, thiomersal: embryons de poussin
  • Havrix
    1. Hépatite A
    2. SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals 1-800-633-8900
    3. Produit en utilisant la formaline, hydroxyde d'aluminium, phenoxyethanol, polysorbate 20, support résiduel des protéines MRC5: cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu foetal humain d'avortements)
  • HibTiter
    1. Hemophilus influenzae Type B (Hib)
    2. Laboratoires Lederle 1-800-934-5556
    3. Produit en utilisant le polyribosylribitol, sulfate d'ammonium, support thiomersal: à base de levure
  • Imovax
    1. Vaccin de la rage
    2. Laboratoires Connaught 1-800-822-2463
    3. Produit en utilisant de l'albumine humaine, sulfate de néomycine, phénol: cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu foetal humain d'avortements)
  • Vaccin de la rage
    1. SmithKline Beecham 1-800-366-8900
    2. Produit en utilisant le betapropiolactone, phosphate d'aluminium, ethylmercurithiosalicylate de sodium (thiomersal), phénol: cellules foetales de poumon de singe rhésus
  • IPOL
    1. Vaccin inactivé de la poliomyélite
    2. Laboratoires Connaught 1-800-822-2463
    3. Produit en utilisant 3 types de virus de poliomyélite, formaldéhyde, phenoxyethanol, néomycine, streptomycine, polymyxin B: cellules de VERO (cellules de rein de singe)
  • Menomune
    1. Vaccin méningococcique
    2. Laboratoires Connaught 1-800-822-2463
    3. Composants: thiomersal, lactose: antigènes polysaccharides lyophilisés de Neisseria Meningitidis
  • Meruvax I Mumpsvax
    1. Vaccin des oreillons
    2. Merck & Co., Inc. 1-800-672-6372
    3. Produit en utilisant la néomycine, sorbitol, support hydrolysé de gélatine: cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu foetal humain d'avortements)
  • MMR (ROR)
    1. Vaccin du virus de la rubéole, des oreillons et de la rougeole
    2. Merck & Co., Inc. 1-800-672-6372
    3. Produit en utilisant le sorbitol, néomycine, supports hydrolysés de gélatine: M & M (rubéole d'embryon de poussin), cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu foetal humain d'avortements)
  • M-R-Vax
    1. Rougeole et rubéole
    2. Merck & Co., Inc. 1-800-672-6372
    3. Produit en utilisant la néomycine, sorbitol, supports hydrolysés de gélatine: M – embryon de poussin R – cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu foetal humain d'avortements)
  • Orimune
    1. Vaccin polio oral, trivalent
    2. Laboratoires Lederle 1-800-934-5556
    3. Produit en utilisant 3 types de virus atténués de la poliomyélite, streptomycine, néomycine, sérum de veau, sorbitol: culture de cellules de rein de singe
  • Pneumovax
    1. Vaccin pneumocoque, polyvalent
    2. Merck & Co., Inc. 1-800-672-6372
    3. Produit en utilisant du phénol et des polysaccharides capsulaires à partir des 23 types de pneumocoques les plus répandus
  • Recombivax
    1. Vaccin hépatite B
    2. Merck & Co., Inc. 1-800-672-6372
    3. Produit en utilisant le thiomersal, support d'hydroxyde d'aluminium: levure (résidu < 1% protéine de levure)
  • RotaShield
    1. Rotavirus, activé, oral, quadrivalent
    2. Laboratoires Wyeth-Ayerst 1-800-934-5556
    3. Produit en utilisant 1 rotavirus de singe rhésus, 3 virus rhésus humains, saccharose, glutamate monosodique (MSG), monophosphate de potassium, diphosphate de potassium, sérum foetal de boeuf , sulfate de néomycine, amphotéricine B: ligne de cellules diploïdes de rhésus foetal
  • Varivax
    1. Vaccin de la varicelle
    2. Merck & Co., Inc. 1-800-672-6372
    3. Produit en utilisant le saccharose, phosphate, glutamate monosodique, gélatine: cellules diploïdes humaines (provenant du tissu foetal humain d'avortements)

    Profils et définitions chimiques

    Sources: FED (Environmental Defense Fund) & MME (Mosby's Medical Encyclopaedia)

    1. Aluminium:
      1. Le FED a suspecté: toxicité cardiovasculaire ou sanguine, toxicité neurologique et respiratoire. Plus dangereux que la plupart des produits chimiques dans 2 systèmes sur 6 de classement sur au moins 2 listes de normalisation fédérales
    2. Amphotéricine B:
      1. définition du MME: drogue traitant les infections dues aux champignons. L'allergie connue à cette drogue interdit son utilisation. Les effets secondaires incluent des caillots de sang, dommages au sang, des problèmes rénaux, la nausée et la fièvre. Une fois utilisée sur la peau, des réactions allergiques peuvent se produire.
    3. Bêta-Propiolactone:
      1. Le FED l'a reconnu carcinogène.
      2. Le FED a suspecté: toxicité gastro-intestinale ou hépatique, toxicité respiratoire et sensorielle. Plus dangereux que la plupart des produits chimiques dans 3 systèmes sur 3 de classement, sur au moins 5 listes de normalisation fédérales. Classé comme un des composés les plus dangereux pour l'être humain
    4. Formaldéhyde:
      1. Le FED l'a reconnu carcinogène
      2. Suspecté de toxicité gastro-intestinale ou hépatique, toxicité immunitaire, neurologique et du système reproducteur, toxicité respiratoire et sensorielle. Plus dangereux que la plupart des produits chimiques dans 5 systèmes sur 12 de classement sur au moins 8 listes de normalisation fédérales. Classé comme un des composés les plus dangereux pour l'écosystème et la santé humaine
    5. Glutamate monosodique:
      1. Normalement utilisé comme renforçateur de goût dans une certaine variété d'aliments. Cependant, suite aux inquiétudes exprimées par l'académie américaine de pédiatrie, il a été retiré de tous les produits destinés aux enfants de moins d'une année. Des piqûres de glutamate chez les animaux de laboratoire ont eu comme conséquence des dommages aux cellules nerveuses du cerveau.
    6. Néomycine:
      1. un antibiotique
    7. Phénol (acide carbolique):
      1. Le FED a suspecté: toxicité cardiovasculaire ou sanguine, toxicité du développement, toxicité gastro-intestinale ou hépatique, toxicité par contact avec la peau, toxicité rénale, neurologique, respiratoire et sensorielle. Plus dangereux que la plupart des produits chimiques dans 3 systèmes sur 10 de classement sur au moins 8 listes de normalisation fédérales
    8. Phenoxyéthanol:
      1. Le FED a suspecté: toxicité du développement, toxicité du système reproducteur. Moins dangereux que la plupart des produits chimiques dans 3 systèmes de classement.
    9. Polymyxin:
      1. un antibiotique
    10. Polyribosylribitol:
      1. un composant de la bactérie de Hib
    11. Polysorbate:
      1. Le FED a suspecté: toxicité par contact avec la peau ou les organes des sens
    12. Saccharose:
      1. sucre raffiné
    13. Sorbitol:
      1. le FED a suspecté: toxicité gastro-intestinale ou hépatique. Moins dangereux que la plupart des produits chimiques dans 1 système de classement
    14. Streptomycine:
      1. un antibiotique
    15. Sulfate d'ammonium:
      1. Le FED l'a suspecté de: toxicité gastro-intestinale ou hépatique, toxicité neurologique et respiratoire
    16. Sulfate de gentamicine:
      1. gélatine hydrolysée antibiotique: obtenu à partir des morceaux sélectionnés de peaux de veau et de bétail, d'os déminéralisés de bétail (osséine) et de peau de cochon
    17. Thiomersal (dérivé mercuriel):
      1. Le FED a reconnu: toxicité du développement.
      2. Le FED a suspecté: toxicité par contact avec la peau ou les organes des sens
    18. Tri(n)butylphosphate:
      1. le FED a suspecté: toxicité rénale et neurologique. Plus dangereux que la plupart des produits chimiques dans 2 systèmes sur 3 de classement, sur au moins 1 liste de normalisation fédérale
  • US AND CANADA – ABORTED FETAL CELL LINE PRODUCTS AND ETHICAL ALTERNATIVES
    Updat
    ed: October 18, 2009   NOTE:  ALL FLU AND H1NI (SWINE FLU) VACCINES FOR THE 2009-2010 SEASON ARE USING MORAL CELL LINES:  READ OUR PRESS RELEASE 

    Disease Product Name Manufacturer Fetal Cell Line Ethical Version Manufacturer Cell Line
    Chickenpox Varivax, Varilrix Merck, GSK WI-38, MRC-5 None N/A N/A
    Cystic Fibrosis Pulmozyme Genentech HEK-293 None N/A N/A
    Hepatitis A   Vaqta, Havrix Avaxim, Epaxal Merck, GSK Sanofi, Berna MRC-5 MRC-5 Aimmungen
    Not available in US
    Kaketsuken (Japan & Europe) Vero (monkey)
    Hepatitis A & B Hepatitis A & Typhoid Twinrix Vivaxim GSK Sanofi MRC-5 MRC-5 Engerix Hep-B Only Recombivax Hep-B Only GSK Merck Yeast Yeast
    Measles/Mumps/Rubella MMR, Priorix Merck, GSK RA273, WI-38 None N/A N/A
    Measles-Rubella MR Vax, Eolarix Merck, GSK. RA273, WI-38,MRC-5 Attenuvax (Measles Only) Merck Chick embryo
    Mumps-Rubella Biavax II Merck RA273, WI-38 Mumpsvax (Mumps Only) Merck Chick embryo
    Rubella Meruvax II Merck. RA273, WI-38 Takahashi (Not in US) Kitasato Institute Rabbit
    MMR + Chickenpox ProQuad/MMR-V Merck. RA273, WI-38, MRC-5 None N/A N/A
    Polio Poliovax, DT Polio Adsorb. Sanofi Pasteur MRC-5 IPOL Sanofi Pasteur Vero (monkey)
    Polio Combination (DTaP + polio+ HiB) Pentacel,
    Quadracel
    Sanofi Pasteur MRC-5 Pediacel; Pediarix + HiB Infanrix Hexa + HiB
    IPOL + any DTaP + HiB
      Sanofi, GSK     Vero (monkey)
    Rabies Imovax Sanofi Pasteur MRC-5 RabAvert Chiron Chick embryo
    Rheumatoid Arthritis Enbrel Amgen WI-26 VA4 Humira Abbott Labs CH Hamster
    Sepsis Xigris Eli Lilly HEK-293 Ask your doctor N/A N/A
    Shingles Zostavax Merck. WI-38, MRC-5 None N/A N/A
    Smallpox Acambis 1000 Acambis MRC-5 ACAM2000, MVA3000 Acambis/Baxter Vero (monkey)
    In Development:  Flu, Avian Flu, Swine Flu Flu Symptom Drug Un-named
    Un-named
    MAB CR6261
    Vaxin, Sanofi Crucell PER C6 Cell Culture -In Development All current flu and Swine Flu use chick embryo: Moral cell cultures in development are: Medimmune, Novartis, CSL Ltd, ID Biomed,  Novavax,
    Protein Sci., Baxter
    MDCK Insect, MDCK, Insect, Vero
    In Development: HIV MRKAd5 HIV-1 Merck PER C6 None N/A N/A

       Note:  Immune-Globulin shots will provide temporary immunity (4-6 months) for Hepatitis-A and Rubella (3 months) Physician Order: Merck: 800-422-9675  GSK: 866-475-8222   Sanofi Pasteur: 800-822-2463 Chiron:( 800 244-7668 (PST)                     NOTE:  ANY PRODUCT NOT LISTED ABOVE DOES NOT USE ABORTED FETAL CELL LINES.

                   Click Here To Download and Print This List of Vaccines in PDF Format  Order Free Brochures    Sign Our Petition       Click Here for Full Canada Vaccine List      En Español      En Portuguese   Auf Deutsch  Po Polsku Flag of Poland  il apparaît qu'il contient une souche "H1N1".

    Mais… ne serait-y pas pas la souche Grippe A ???
    On nous a assez lobotomiser avec cette grippe durant des mois, pour qu'il n'y ait pas de confusion possible.

    Extrait de notice :

    << Que contient MUTAGRIP ?

    La substance active est :

    Virus grippal*, fragmenté, inactivé, contenant des antigènes analogues aux souches suivantes :

    A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) – souche analogue dérivée IVR-148……………………………… 15 microgrammes HA**

    A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2) – souche analogue NYMC X-175C dérivée de A/Uruguay/716/2007

    ………………………………..… 15 microgrammes HA**

    B/Florida/4/2006………………….… 15 microgrammes HA**

    pour une dose de 0,5 ml

    *cultivé sur œufs embryonnés de poules provenant d’élevages sains

    **hémagglutinine >>

    J'ai donc comme l'impression que ceux qui se croient vaccinés contre la classique grippe hivernale le sont également contre la grippe A.

    Alors… et bien tant pis pour vous s'il y a des conséquences, c'est comme ça ?
    Pas d'AMM pour le vaccin solo, alors on en glisse un chouillat dans l'autre ?

    De mieux en mieux…..

    • Il y a 2 semaines

    Détails supplémentaires

    @Marine R98 : Et bien… oui, je sais lire une notice, et le H1N1 est bien dessus, il n'y a pas de doute…
    Pontifical Academy for Life
     
    Declaration

    MORAL REFLECTIONS ON VACCINES PREPARED FROM CELLS DERIVED FROM ABORTED HUMAN FOETUSES

    5 June 2005
     

      The matter in question regards the lawfulness of production, distribution and use of certain vaccines whose production is connected with acts of procured abortion. It concerns vaccines containing live viruses which have been prepared from human cell lines of foetal origin, using tissues from aborted human foetuses as a source of such cells. The best known, and perhaps the most important due to its vast distribution and its use on an almost universal level, is the vaccine against Rubella (German measles).     Rubella and its vaccine   Rubella (German measles)1 is a viral illness caused by a Togavirus of the genus Rubivirus and is characterized by a maculopapular rash. It consists of an infection which is common in infancy and has no clinical manifestations in one case out of two, is self-limiting and usually benign. Nonetheless, the German measles virus is one of the most pathological infective agents for the embryo and foetus. When a woman catches the infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, the risk of foetal infection is very high (approximately 95%). The virus replicates itself in the placenta and infects the foetus, causing the constellation of abnormalities denoted by the name of Congenital Rubella Syndrome. For example, the severe epidemic of German measles which affected a huge part of the United States in 1964 thus caused 20,000 cases of congenital rubella2, resulting in 11,250 abortions (spontaneous or surgical), 2,100 neonatal deaths, 11,600 cases of deafness, 3,580 cases of blindness, 1,800 cases of mental retardation. It was this epidemic that pushed for the development and introduction on the market of an effective vaccine against rubella, thus permitting an effective prophylaxis against this infection. The severity of congenital rubella and the handicaps which it causes justify systematic vaccination against such a sickness. It is very difficult, perhaps even impossible, to avoid the infection of a pregnant woman, even if the rubella infection of a person in contact with this woman is diagnosed from the first day of the eruption of the rash. Therefore, one tries to prevent transmission by suppressing the reservoir of infection among children who have not been vaccinated, by means of early immunization of all children (universal vaccination). Universal vaccination has resulted in a considerable fall in the incidence of congenital rubella, with a general incidence reduced to less than 5 cases per 100,000 livebirths. Nevertheless, this progress remains fragile. In the United States, for example, after an overwhelming reduction in the number of cases of congenital rubella to only a few cases annually, i.e. less than 0.1 per 100,000 live births, a new epidemic wave came on in 1991, with an incidence that rose to 0.8/100,000. Such waves of resurgence of German measles were also seen in 1997 and in the year 2000. These periodic episodes of resurgence make it evident that there is a persistent circulation of the virus among young adults, which is the consequence of insufficient vaccination coverage. The latter situation allows a significant proportion of vulnerable subjects to persist, who are a source of periodic epidemics which put women in the fertile age group who have not been immunized at risk. Therefore, the reduction to the point of eliminating congenital rubella is considered a priority in public health care.     Vaccines currently produced using human cell lines that come from aborted foetuses   To date, there are two human diploid cell lines which were originally prepared from tissues of aborted foetuses ( in 1964 and 1970) and are used for the preparation of vaccines based on live attenuated virus: the first one is the WI-38 line (Winstar Institute 38), with human diploid lung fibroblasts, coming from a female foetus that was aborted because the family felt they had too many children (G. Sven et al., 1969). It was prepared and developed by Leonard Hayflick in 1964 (L. Hayflick, 1965; G. Sven et al., 1969)3 and bears the ATCC number CCL-75. WI-38 has been used for the preparation of the historical vaccine RA 27/3 against rubella (S.A. Plotkin et al, 1965)4. The second human cell line is MRC-5 (Medical Research Council 5) (human, lung, embryonic) (ATCC number CCL-171), with human lung fibroblasts coming from a 14 week male foetus aborted for “psychiatric reasons” from a 27 year old woman in the UK. MRC-5 was prepared and developed by J.P. Jacobs in 1966 (J.P. Jacobs et al, 1970)5. Other human cell lines have been developed for pharmaceutical needs, but are not involved in the vaccines actually available6.   The vaccines that are incriminated today as using human cell lines from aborted foetuses, WI-38 and MRC-5, are the following: 7  

    A)Live vaccines against rubella8: the monovalent vaccines against rubella Meruvax®II (Merck) (U.S.), Rudivax® (Sanofi Pasteur, Fr.), and Ervevax® (RA 27/3) (GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium); -the combined vaccine MR against rubella and measles, commercialized with the name of M-R-VAX® (Merck, US) and Rudi-Rouvax® (AVP, France); -the combined vaccine against rubella and mumps marketed under the name of Biavax®II (Merck, U.S.), -the combined vaccine MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) against rubella, mumps and measles, marketed under the name of M-M-R® II (Merck, US), R.O.R.®, Trimovax® (Sanofi Pasteur, Fr.), and Priorix® (GlaxoSmithKline UK).

     

    B) Other vaccines, also prepared using human cell lines from aborted foetuses: – two vaccines against hepatitis A, one produced by Merck (VAQTA), the other one produced by GlaxoSmithKline (HAVRIX), both of them being prepared using MRC-5; – one vaccine against chicken pox, Varivax®, produced by Merck using WI-38 and MRC-5; – one vaccine against poliomyelitis, the inactivated polio virus vaccine Poliovax® (Aventis-Pasteur, Fr.) using MRC-5; – one vaccine against rabies, Imovax®, produced by Aventis Pasteur, harvested from infected human diploid cells, MRC-5 strain; – one vaccine against smallpox, ACAM 1000, prepared by Acambis using MRC-5, still on trial.

        The position of the ethical problem related to these vaccines   From the point of view of prevention of viral diseases such as German measles, mumps, measles, chicken pox and hepatitis A, it is clear that the making of effective vaccines against diseases such as these, as well as their use in the fight against these infections, up to the point of eradication, by means of an obligatory vaccination of all the population at risk, undoubtedly represents a “milestone” in the secular fight of man against infective and contagious diseases. However, as the same vaccines are prepared from viruses taken from the tissues of foetuses that had been infected and voluntarily aborted, and the viruses were subsequently attenuated and cultivated from human cell lines which come likewise from procured abortions, they do not cease to pose ethical problems. The need to articulate a moral reflection on the matter in question arises mainly from the connection which exists between the vaccines mentioned above and the procured abortions from which biological material necessary for their preparation was obtained. If someone rejects every form of voluntary abortion of human foetuses, would such a person not contradict himself/herself by allowing the use of these vaccines of live attenuated viruses on their children? Would it not be a matter of true (and illicit) cooperation in evil, even though this evil was carried out forty years ago? Before proceeding to consider this specific case, we need to recall briefly the principles assumed in classical moral doctrine with regard to the problem of cooperation in evil9, a problem which arises every time that a moral agent perceives the existence of a link between his own acts and a morally evil action carried out by others.     The principle of licit cooperation in evil   The first fundamental distinction to be made is that between formal and material cooperation. Formal cooperation is carried out when the moral agent cooperates with the immoral action of another person, sharing in the latter’s evil intention. On the other hand, when a moral agent cooperates with the immoral action of another person, without sharing his/her evil intention, it is a case of material cooperation. Material cooperation can be further divided into categories of immediate (direct) and mediate (indirect), depending on whether the cooperation is in the execution of the sinful action per se, or whether the agent acts by fulfilling the conditions – either by providing instruments or products – which make it possible to commit the immoral act. Furthermore, forms of proximate cooperation and remote cooperation can be distinguished, in relation to the “distance” (be it in terms of temporal space or material connection) between the act of cooperation and the sinful act committed by someone else. Immediate material cooperation is always proximate, while mediate material cooperation can be either proximate or remote. Formal cooperation is always morally illicit because it represents a form of direct and intentional participation in the sinful action of another person.10 Material cooperation can sometimes be illicit (depending on the conditions of the “double effect” or “indirect voluntary” action), but when immediate material cooperation concerns grave attacks on human life, it is always to be considered illicit, given the precious nature of the value in question11. A further distinction made in classical morality is that between active (or positive) cooperation in evil and passive (or negative) cooperation in evil, the former referring to the performance of an act of cooperation in a sinful action that is carried out by another person, while the latter refers to the omission of an act of denunciation or impediment of a sinful action carried out by another person, insomuch as there was a moral duty to do that which was omitted12. Passive cooperation can also be formal or material, immediate or mediate, proximate or remote. Obviously, every type of formal passive cooperation is to be considered illicit, but even passive material cooperation should generally be avoided, although it is admitted (by many authors) that there is not a rigorous obligation to avoid it in a case in which it would be greatly difficult to do so.     Application to the use of vaccines prepared from cells coming from embryos or foetuses aborted voluntarily   In the specific case under examination, there are three categories of people who are involved in the cooperation in evil, evil which is obviously represented by the action of a voluntary abortion performed by others: a) those who prepare the vaccines using human cell lines coming from voluntary abortions; b) those who participate in the mass marketing of such vaccines; c) those who need to use them for health reasons. Firstly, one must consider morally illicit every form of formal cooperation (sharing the evil intention) in the action of those who have performed a voluntary abortion, which in turn has allowed the retrieval of foetal tissues, required for the preparation of vaccines. Therefore, whoever – regardless of the category to which he belongs – cooperates in some way, sharing its intention, to the performance of a voluntary abortion with the aim of producing the above-mentioned vaccines, participates, in actuality, in the same moral evil as the person who has performed that abortion. Such participation would also take place in the case where someone, sharing the intention of the abortion, refrains from denouncing or criticizing this illicit action, although having the moral duty to do so (passive formal cooperation). In a case where there is no such formal sharing of the immoral intention of the person who has performed the abortion, any form of cooperation would be material, with the following specifications. As regards the preparation, distribution and marketing of vaccines produced as a result of the use of biological material whose origin is connected with cells coming from foetuses voluntarily aborted, such a process is stated, as a matter of principle, morally illicit, because it could contribute in encouraging the performance of other voluntary abortions, with the purpose of the production of such vaccines. Nevertheless, it should be recognized that, within the chain of production-distribution-marketing, the various cooperating agents can have different moral responsibilities. However, there is another aspect to be considered, and that is the form of passive material cooperation which would be carried out by the producers of these vaccines, if they do not denounce and reject publicly the original immoral act (the voluntary abortion), and if they do not dedicate themselves together to research and promote alternative ways, exempt from moral evil, for the production of vaccines for the same infections. Such passive material cooperation, if it should occur, is equally illicit. As regards those who need to use such vaccines for reasons of health, it must be emphasized that, apart from every form of formal cooperation, in general, doctors or parents who resort to the use of these vaccines for their children, in spite of knowing their origin (voluntary abortion), carry out a form of very remote mediate material cooperation, and thus very mild, in the performance of the original act of abortion, and a mediate material cooperation, with regard to the marketing of cells coming from abortions, and immediate, with regard to the marketing of vaccines produced with such cells. The cooperation is therefore more intense on the part of the authorities and national health systems that accept the use of the vaccines. However, in this situation, the aspect of passive cooperation is that which stands out most. It is up to the faithful and citizens of upright conscience (fathers of families, doctors, etc.) to oppose, even by making an objection of conscience, the ever more widespread attacks against life and the “culture of death” which underlies them. From this point of view, the use of vaccines whose production is connected with procured abortion constitutes at least a mediate remote passive material cooperation to the abortion, and an immediate passive material cooperation with regard to their marketing. Furthermore, on a cultural level, the use of such vaccines contributes in the creation of a generalized social consensus to the operation of the pharmaceutical industries which produce them in an immoral way. Therefore, doctors and fathers of families have a duty to take recourse to alternative vaccines13 (if they exist), putting pressure on the political authorities and health systems so that other vaccines without moral problems become available. They should take recourse, if necessary, to the use of conscientious objection14 with regard to the use of vaccines produced by means of cell lines of aborted human foetal origin. Equally, they should oppose by all means (in writing, through the various associations, mass media, etc.) the vaccines which do not yet have morally acceptable alternatives, creating pressure so that alternative vaccines are prepared, which are not connected with the abortion of a human foetus, and requesting rigorous legal control of the pharmaceutical industry producers. As regards the diseases against which there are no alternative vaccines which are available and ethically acceptable, it is right to abstain from using these vaccines if it can be done without causing children, and indirectly the population as a whole, to undergo significant risks to their health. However, if the latter are exposed to considerable dangers to their health, vaccines with moral problems pertaining to them may also be used on a temporary basis. The moral reason is that the duty to avoid passive material cooperation is not obligatory if there is grave inconvenience. Moreover, we find, in such a case, a proportional reason, in order to accept the use of these vaccines in the presence of the danger of favouring the spread of the pathological agent, due to the lack of vaccination of children. This is particularly true in the case of vaccination against German measles15. In any case, there remains a moral duty to continue to fight and to employ every lawful means in order to make life difficult for the pharmaceutical industries which act unscrupulously and unethically. However, the burden of this important battle cannot and must not fall on innocent children and on the health situation of the population – especially with regard to pregnant women.   To summarize, it must be confirmed that:   -there is a grave responsibility to use alternative vaccines and to make a conscientious objection with regard to those which have moral problems; – as regards the vaccines without an alternative, the need to contest so that others may be prepared must be reaffirmed, as should be the lawfulness of using the former in the meantime insomuch as is necessary in order to avoid a serious risk not only for one’s own children but also, and perhaps more specifically, for the health conditions of the population as a whole – especially for pregnant women; – the lawfulness of the use of these vaccines should not be misinterpreted as a declaration of the lawfulness of their production, marketing and use, but is to be understood as being a passive material cooperation and, in its mildest and remotest sense, also active, morally justified as an extrema ratio due to the necessity to provide for the good of one’s children and of the people who come in contact with the children (pregnant women); – such cooperation occurs in a context of moral coercion of the conscience of parents, who are forced to choose to act against their conscience or otherwise, to put the health of their children and of the population as a whole at risk. This is an unjust alternative choice, which must be eliminated as soon as possible.   1J. E. Banatvala, D.W.G. Brown, Rubella, The Lancet, 3rd April 2004, vol. 363, No. 9415, pp.1127-1137

    2Rubella , Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1964, vol. 13, p.93. S.A. Plotkin, Virologic Assistance in the Management of German Measles in Pregnancy, JAMA, 26th October 1964, vol.190, pp.265-268
    3. L. Hayflick, The Limited In Vitro Lifetime of Human Diploid Cell Strains, Experimental Cell Research, March 1965, vol.37, no. 3, pp. 614-636. G. Sven, S. Plotkin, K. McCarthy, Gamma Globulin Prophylaxis; Inactivated Rubella Virus; Production and Biological Control of Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines, American journal of Diseases of Children, August 1969, vol. 118, no. 2, pp.372-381. 4.S. A. Plotkin, D. Cornfeld, Th.H. Ingalls, Studies of Immunization With Living Rubella Virus, Trials in Children With a Strain coming from an Aborted Fetus, American Journal of Diseases in children, October 1965, vol. 110, no. 4, pp.381-389.
    5.J.P. Jacobs, C.M. Jones, J.P. Baille, Characteristics of a Human Diploid Cell Designated MRC-5, Nature, 11th July 1970, vol.277, pp.168-170.
    6Two other human cell lines, that are permanent, HEK 293 aborted fetal cell line, from primary human embryonic kidney cells transformed by sheared adenovirus type 5 (the fetal kidney material was obtained from an aborted fetus, in 1972 probably), and PER.C6, a fetal cell line created using retinal tissue from an 18 week gestation aborted baby, have been developed for the pharmaceutical manufacturing of adenovirus vectors (for gene therapy). They have not been involved in the making of any of the attenuated live viruses vaccines presently in use because of their capacity to develop tumorigenic cells in the recipient. However some vaccines, still at the developmental stage, against Ebola virus (Crucell,NV and the Vaccine Research Center of the National Institutes of Health's Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIAID), HIV (Merck), influenza (MedImmune, Sanofi pasteur), Japanese encephalitis (Crucell N.V. and Rhein Biotech N.V.) are prepared using PER.C6® cell line (Crucell N.V., Leiden, The Netherlands).
    7Against these various infectious diseases, there are some alternative vaccines that are prepared using animals’ cells or tissues, and are therefore ethically acceptable. Their availability depends on the country in question. Concerning the particular case of the United States, there are no options for the time being in that country for the vaccination against rubella, chickenpox and hepatitis A, other than the vaccines proposed by Merck, prepared using the human cell lines WI-38 and MRC-5. There is a vaccine against smallpox prepared with the Vero cell line (derived from the kidney of an African green monkey), ACAM2000 (Acambis-Baxter) ( a second-generation smallpox vaccine, stockpiled, not approved in the US), which offers, therefore, an alternative to the Acambis 1000. There are alternative vaccines against mumps (Mumpsvax, Merck, measles (Attenuvax, Merck), rabies (RabAvert, Chiron therapeutics), prepared from chicken embryos. (However serious allergies have occurred with such vaccines), poliomyelitis (IPOL, Aventis-Pasteur, prepared with monkey kidney cells) and smallpox (a third-generation smallpox vaccine MVA, Modified Vaccinia Ankara, Acambis-Baxter). In Europe and in Japan, there are other vaccines available against rubella and hepatitis A, produced using non-human cell lines. The Kitasato Institute produce four vaccines against rubella, called Takahashi, TO-336 and Matuba, prepared with cells from rabbit kidney, and one (Matuura) prepared with cells from a quail embryo. The Chemo-sero-therapeutic Research Institute Kaketsuken produce one another vaccine against hepatitis A, called Ainmugen, prepared with cells from monkey kidney. The only remaining problem is with the vaccine Varivax® against chicken pox, for which there is no alternative.
    8The vaccine against rubella using the strain Wistar RA27/3 of live attenuated rubella virus, adapted and propagated in WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts is at the centre of present controversy regarding the morality of the use of vaccines prepared with the help of human cell lines coming from aborted foetuses.
    9O.D.M. Prummer Pr., De cooperatione ad malum, in Manuale Theologiae Moralis secundum Principia S. Thomae Aquinatis, Tomus I, Friburgi Brisgoviae, Herder & Co., 1923, Pars I, Trat. IX, Caput III, no. 2, pp. 429-434. K.H. Peschke, Cooperation in the sins of others, in Christian Ethics. Moral Theology in the Light of Vatican II, vol.I, General Moral Theology, C. Goodliffe Neale Ltd., Arden Forest Industrial Estate, Alcester, Warwickshire, B49 6Er, revised edition, 1986, pp. 320-324. .A. Fisher, Cooperation in Evil, Catholic Medical Quarterly, 1994, pp. 15-22. .D. Tettamanzi, Cooperazione, in Dizionario di Bioetica, S. Leone, S. Privitera ed., Istituto Siciliano di Bioetica, EDB-ISB, 1994, pp.194-198. .L. Melina, La cooperazione con azioni moralmente cattive contro la vita umana, in Commentario Interdisciplinare alla “Evangelium Vitae”, E. Sgreccia, Ramòn Luca Lucas ed., Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1997, pp.467-490. E. Sgreccia, Manuale di Bioetica, vol. I, Reprint of the third edition, Vita e Pensiero, Milan, 1999, pp.362-363. 10 Cf. John Paul II, Enc. Evangelium Vitae, no. 74.
    11 ibidem
    12No. 1868 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church.
    13The alternative vaccines in question are those that are prepared by means of cell lines which are not of human origin, for example, the Vero cell line (from monkeys) (D. Vinnedge), the kidney cells of rabbits or monkeys, or the cells of chicken embryos. However, it should be noted that grave forms of allergy have occurred with some of the vaccines prepared in this way. The use of recombinant DNA technology could lead to the development of new vaccines in the near future which will no longer require the use of cultures of human diploid cells for the attenuation of the virus and its growth, for such vaccines will not be prepared from a basis of attenuated virus, but from the genome of the virus and from the antigens thus developed (G. C. Woodrow, W.M. McDonnell and F.K. Askari). Some experimental studies have already been done using vaccines developed from DNA that has been derived from the genome of the German measles virus. Moreover, some Asiatic researchers are trying to use the Varicella virus as a vector for the insertion of genes which codify the viral antigens of Rubella. These studies are still at a preliminary phase and the refinement of vaccine preparations which can be used in clinical practice will require a lengthy period of time and will be at high costs. .D. Vinnedge, The Smallpox Vaccine, The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly, Spring 2000, vol.2, no. 1, p.12. .G.C. Woodrow, An Overview of Biotechnology As Applied to Vaccine Development, in «New Generation Vaccines», G.C. Woodrow, M.M. Levine eds., Marcel Dekker Inc., New York and Basel, 1990, see pp.32-37. W.M. McDonnell, F.K. Askari, Immunization, JAMA, 10th December 1997, vol.278, no.22, pp.2000-2007, see pp. 2005-2006.
    14Such a duty may lead, as a consequence, to taking recourse to “objection of conscience” when the action recognized as illicit is an act permitted or even encouraged by the laws of the country and poses a threat to human life. The Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae underlined this “obligation to oppose” the laws which permit abortion or euthanasia “by conscientious objection” (no.73)
    15This is particularly true in the case of vaccination against German measles, because of the danger of Congenital Rubella Syndrome. This could occur, causing grave congenital malformations in the foetus, when a pregnant woman enters into contact, even if it is brief, with children who have not been immunized and are carriers of the virus. In this case, the parents who did not accept the vaccination of their own children become responsible for the malformations in question, and for the subsequent abortion of foetuses, when they have been discovered to be malformed.

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